C45E is a simple engineering steel which contains about 0.45% of carbon. The relatively high carbon content renders the steel suitable for induction hardening and quenching plus tempering (Q+T). However, the low alloy content precludes good response to Q+T for larger dimensions.
C45E is standardised in SS-EN 10250 - 2. The (discontinued) SS-designation is 1672. Tibnor has chosen to stock bars of material with designation C45R as defined in SS-EN ISO 683 - 1, the only difference to C45E being a controlled level of sulphur for improved machinability. The bars are normalised and finished by rough turning to a diameter tolerance of +3/-0 mm. Height-of-arc straightness is better than 0.002 times bar length.
In tensile testing of forged C45E, the lowest permitted level for yield strength is 280 MPa. The interval for tensile strength is 590 - 740 MPa and the hardness must be at most 220 HB. Following SS-EN 10250 - 2, the sampling location is mid-radius.
Welding of C45E is possible but anything other than very small parts should be preheated. Machinability is very good and short chips mean that the material is suitable for processing in unmanned operation.
If the application so requires, C45E is eminently suitable for induction hardening and can also be surface hardened by nitriding. A Q+T-operation can be used to increase the strength level but the hardenability is not very good so quenching is best performed using water or polymer quenchant.